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Fire Prevention session

Fire Prevention session





Objective



How does a Fire occur?


Type of fire



Principle of fire extinction



Principle of fire extinction (starvation)



Principle of fire extinction (cooling)



Principle of fire extinction (smothering)



Principle of fire extinction



Different kinds of Extinguishers



Foam type



Foam type



Foam type



Carbon Dioxide type



Carbon Dioxide type



Carbon Dioxide type



Dry chemical powder (DCP)



Dry chemical powder (DCP)



Dry chemical powder (DCP)



Dry chemical powder (DCP)



Dry chemical powder (Stored pressure type)_



Dry chemical powder (Stored pressure type)_



Dry chemical powder (Stored pressure type)



Suitability of fire extinguishers



Selection of fire extinguishers


 Maintenance of fire extinguishers



How to use a fire extinguishers



P.A.S.S Method



P.A.S.S Method



P.A.S.S Method



P.A.S.S Method



Don'ts




Do's





prevention is better than cure






Thank you







Welcome to

FIRE PREVENTION - Session

How does a Fire occur?

Fire needs all three components
Fire gets extinguished when one or more of the components removed
Chain reaction makes fire continue to burn. 

Types of Fires

Class A -   Wood, paper,cloth, trash
Class B -    Flammable liquids, oils
Class C -   Flammable Gas, Liquefied   Flammable gas
Class D -   Combustible metals, like   Sodium, Potassium,   Magnesium

Principle of fire extinction



1.Starvation
2.Cooling
3.Smothering
4.Interuption of Chain Reaction


Principle of fire extinction
(Starvation)


Isolating  the  Fuel


Principle of fire extinction
(Cooling)


Reducing temperature



Principle of fire extinction
(Smothering)



Limiting Oxygen



Principle of fire extinction



Interupting Chain Reaction



Different Kinds of Extinguishers



The 3 most common fire extinguishers used at site:
Foam
Carbon Dioxide
Dry Chemical Powder – Cartridge type
Dry Chemical Powder – Stored Pressure type


Foam type


USE
This extinguisher is used to put out oil fires (B  Class fires)
APPLICABLE IS CODE
IS 10204 - 1982
IS 2190 - 1992
SIZES AVAILABLE
500g, 1,2,5,10kg


Foam type


CONSTRUCTION
This extinguisher consists of a cylindrical body onto which a cap union is fitted.
The cap union is fitted with a Co2 gas cartridge, piercer mechanism and safety clip.
The body is fitted with a siphon tube.  Screwed onto the nipple of the siphon tube is a flexible braided plastic hose terminating with plastic foam making branch pipe. 


Foam type 


METHOD OF OPERATION:
 Keep the extinguisher on the ground or platform
Withdraw the branch pipe from its seat, swing back the safety clip and press down the knob with the palm.
This action releases Co2 gas from the cartridge and pressurizes the extinguisher body.
Foam is then directed to fall onto the fire gently.




Carbon Dioxide


USE
The Co2 fire extinguisher is used to put out fire involving electrical equipments, oil (B Class Fire) and gas (Class fire).
APPLICABLE IS CODE
IS 2190- 1992
IS 2878- 1976
SIZES:
2, 3.2, 4.5, 6.8, 9,22.5Kg



Carbon Dioxide



CONSTRUCTION
The extinguisher consists of a cylindrical body onto which a wheel valve is fitted. The wheel valve is having a safety pin with which we can lock the wheel valve and also to this wheel valve a discharge horn made of fiber plastic is fitted.  The body is fixed with a siphon tube. 



Carbon Dioxide



METHOD OF OPERATION:
Remove the safety pin and turn the wheel in anti-clockwise direction and direct the gas to the seat of fire with the help of the discharge horn.  We can control the flow of the gas turning the wheel valve in clockwise direction.



Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)



USE
The dry powder fire extinguisher is used to put out fires involving oil (B class fire) and gas fires (C class fire).
APPLICBALE IS CODE
IS 2171 - 1986
IS 2190 – 1992
SIZES AVAILABLE
1,2,5,10kg



Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)


CONSTRUCTION
DCP extinguisher consists of a cylindrical body onto which a cap union is screwed.
The cap union is having the piercer mechanism and safety clip and Co2 gas cartridge is screwed onto this.
The body is fixed with siphon tube. 



Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)



METHOD OF OPERATION
Withdraw the hose from its seat, swing back the safety clip and press down the knob with the palm.
This releases Co2 gas from the cartridge and pressurizes the extinguisher body.
This pressure pushes the dry powder out which comes out as a stream.
The stream of powder is directed towards the BASE of fire.


Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)




Dry Chemical Powders:
Sodium Bicarbonate
Potassium Bicarbonate
Sodium Chloride
Potassium Chloride
Potassium Sulfide




Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)



USE
Suitable for Class A, B  and C fires.
IS Code: 13849 -1993
Size of Fire Extinguishers
0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10kg 
Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)

CONSTRUCTION
Mono-Ammonium Phosphate Powder is stored in the cylinder under the pressure of Nitrogen.
A Siphon Tube is fitted the discharge valve.
Extinguisher may or may not be provided with Hose
Dial Gauge is provided to monitor the pressure of Nitrogen


Dry Chemical Powder (DCP)

OPERATION
Remove the Safety Pin.
Aim the base of the fire.
Squeeze the valve
From one side of fire Cover the whole area by sweeping action. 

Suitability of Fire Extinguishers

Selection of Extinguishers (Site Specific)

Maintenance of Extinguishers 

P.A.S.S. Method

Pull the pin

This will allow you to squeeze the handle in order to discharge the extinguisher

Aim at the base of the fire

Aiming at the middle will do no good. 
The agent will pass through the flames.


Squeeze the handle

This will release the pressurized extinguishing agent

Sweep side to side

Cover the entire area that is on fire.
Continue until fire is extinguished


DON’TS


Do not take undue risk
Do not argue or discuss on scene of fire
Do not linger with the equipment. If you do not know its operation, keep away or ask some one near by
Do not use all types of extinguishers on the fire
Do not use water  on oil ,electrical & metal fires
Do not throw sand on machinery parts. Use CO  2 or Dry powder instead.
Do not flood the affected area with water unless required.
Do not crowd the scene of fire.
Do not close the valve of a flammable gas cylinder on fire
Do not resort to breaking cutting, unless required.

DO’S
Raise alarm or shout ‘FIRE’ at the peak of your tone, if you notice a fire with in your vicinity
Approach the scheme with in the quickest possible time
Try to attract Others’ attention as far as possible on your way the schene of fire 
If you are the first to reach, make sure that no life is trapped
Try to put off the fire with the nearest appropriate type of extinguisher
As others rush to the schene, tell them what is the type of the fire which extinguisher is to be used
Do arrange to put off the supply of electricity in case of electric fires
Do not take any chance. Dial the fire service and give exact location

Open all doors/windows after fire is completely extinguished to avoid inhalation of any fumes


Keep yourself posted with information from time to time


Prevention is better then cure


The following measures are suggested for prevention of fire
1.Know the place of work, the fire hazards present and the location of the fire fighting equipment's
2.Keep all the fire fighting appliances clear of abstractions.


3. Oil soaked cotton rags are to be kept in a container with lid to avoid spontaneous combustion and should be disposed off periodically.
4. Keep your place of work always clean and tidy. Good housekeeping is an important factor in preventing fires. Periodical cleaning of surroundings / trenches, preventive maintenance of electrical distribution points, earthings / bonding's of all electrical equipment's, removing loose and work out flexible electrical wiring, etc. will reduce the fire hazards


5. Do not smoke in no-smoking areas. Do not carry lighted cigarette , hot substances or any source of ignition where flammable material is used or stored.
6. Avoid contact of oils, grease or points or points with oxygen cylinders and its fittings. There may be an explosion due to oxidation
7. Compressed gas cylinders must be stored in suitable separate shed having protection from that. Full cylinders and empty cylinders must be stored separately
8. Leakage / spillage of flammable materials must be promptly dealt with and such items be stored and handled in proper container with lid
9. Put out lighted bidi / cigarette or any smouldering fire before leaving work place.
10. Never check LPG/ Acetyle /Gas leakage with lightened match or other flame
11. Use only non-ferrous tools while opening the cans / drums containing highly flammable liquids or others explosive substance 

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