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Scaffolding

Scaffolding
Scaffolding, also called staging, is a temporary structure either supported from below or suspended from above used to support men and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other structures when performing tasks at heights above the ground level.

Types of scaffolds:
* Supported type scaffold
* Suspended type scaffold
*Mobile scaffold



Hazards / Risks associated with scaffold:

* Failure to secure the scaffold to the building
* Inadequate bracing
* Failure to brace it adequately
* Inadequately supported scaffold board
* Erected on uneven ground
* Use of unsuitable or faulty material
* Absence of suitable number of couplers
*Inadequate access or unsecured ladder

Precautions to be taken while scaffolds:

* A scaffold should be designed, erected, altered and dismantled only by competent people 
*Scaffolds shall be properly braced by cross bracing or diagonal bracing or by both, for securing vertical members together laterally.
* Scaffold legs shall be set on adjustable bases or plain bases. If load bearing of the soil is less, base shall be set on sole plate or other suitable foundation, which can bear rated load.
*The maximum height for mobile scaffolds shall be 9.6 m except that this may be increased to 12 m if it is tied to a structure when in use.
*When free-standing mobile scaffold towers are used, the height shall not exceed four times the minimum base dimension.
*All materials shall be removed before mobile scaffold is moved.
*The mobile scaffold in use shall rest upon a suitable footing and shall be stand plumb. The wheels shall be locked to prevent any movement.
*During scaffolding erection the surrounding area is to be barricaded.
*Scaffold are to be interlocked with adjacent structures for every 6 meters.
*Lifting of frame and other parts of scaffolding shall be carried out using derrick & pulley arrangement.
* Ladder shall be used for climbing up and down.
*Red tag shall be used to caution if scaffold is under erection or dismantling.
*While dismantling the scaffold , dropping of materials shall be avoided to prevent damage to materials and injury to workmen below
*While dismantling the scaffold, each tier shall be completely dismantled and materials are to be lowered to the ground before beginning to dismantle the next tier.
*At the end of the day, if a scaffold is going to be half erected or dismantled, it is essential to lower all the loose scaffold materials and ensure that the scaffold is braced adequately to the building / structure.


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